Azerbaijan became an object of Armenia terrorism already since the beginning of XX century.
The terror acts reached their strong swing during first Russian revolution in 1905-1907 and in 1918-1920. Armenian scapegraces acted with special cruelty. They spare neither olds nor women and children, leaving burned and destroyed villages.(42)
Since the end of the 80s of the XX century Azerbaijan has again become the main target of the Armenian terrorism. Terrorist acts were carried out against the civilian population both on the territory of Azerbaijan and out of it. As a result of crimes committed by the Armenian terrorists from 1989 to 1994 over 2 thousand civilians of the Republic of Azerbaijan, mainly women, the elderly people, and the children, died; tens of thousands were wounded and became invalids. (See Annex I).
Armenia stood behind these crime and these terrorist acts were organized for the realization of political goal - the seizure of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. After having been occupied by Armenia, this region of Azerbaijan together with Armenia and the Middle East became the place of deployment of terrorist organizations.(43) The documents prepared by the International Research Institute in Washington mentioned the existence of 21 training centers for PKK fighters in Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. About 660 Kurdish terrorists were trained in the armed forces of the Republic of Armenia.(44)
According to R.Novruzoglu and Y.Oguz, Ibrahim bin Laden, whom we have already mentioned, elaborated a plan on the establishment of training camps in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan, in particular in Jabrayil, Zangilan and Gubadly. He invested 320 thousand USD for these purposes. Mark Sarkissian, head of a terrorist organization "Chegakron" situated in Khankendi since 1999, with the identity card, given by bin Laden, became the member of a radical organization "Armed Islam" (Algeria) and is a coordinator between the two organizations.(45)
The involvement of Armenia, to be more accurate, of its state bodies into the terrorist acts against Azerbaijan has been proved by numerous judicial evidences. Thus, for example, as a result of cooperation between the Azerbaijani Ministry for National Security and the Russian Federal Security Service a terrorist group of Armenian separatists headed by the chief of division of the Main Directorate of the National Security of Armenia, colonel Jan Ohanessian, his deputy, major Ashot Galoyan and the senior officer of the department for counter-terrorism of the Russian Federal Security Service, major Boris Simonian that acted on the territory of the Russian Federation, was called to account. This group, which was financed by the association "TIRR" stationed in Moscow and headed by V.Petrossian, organized explosions in several trains on the territory of Russia and Azerbaijan. All these persons were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment by the courts of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Azerbaijan. The fact of organization by the secret services of Armenia of the electric train explosion at the Baku underground on March 19, 1994 (14 persons died, 42 persons were wounded), which was executed by members of a terrorist and separatist organization "Sadval" that functions in Dagestan was proved during the court examinations. Numerous testimonial and material evidence directly indicate that the fighters of this organization were trained for military and subversive activities at the bases of special services of Armenia at the Lukoser settlement of the Nairi district and in the Arzni district of Armenia, as well as in camps specially built in the Maharramkend district of Dagestan. It were special services of Armenia that financed and provided all necessary explosive materials and technical means for the terrorist act. Azerbaijani special service found out 43 organizers and performers of that crime. 30 of them were sentenced by the Supreme Court of Azerbaijan; as concerns other persons, who are in hiding out of Azerbaijan, the search for them has been going on. The unusual character of this terrorist act is that the special services of a state, neighbouring Azerbaijan (i.e. Armenia), which occupied territories and sponsors the separatist regime in the western part of Azerbaijan (in Nagorno-Karabakh), organized training of terrorists on the territory of the other contiguous country (Russia) from separatists who claim a number of northern regions of Azerbaijan. This is a convincing evidence that the interaction of separatists of different ethnic origin is one of the most important constituent elements of international terrorism.(46)
Above we spoke of the policy aimed at providing asylum and justifying terrorism. Armenia pursues this policy with regard to terrorist organizations and terrorists, who were also involved in the act of violence against the peaceful population on the territories of Azerbaijan occupied by the armed forces of Armenia. This is proved by the fact that in 1993 the Iranian, Lebanese and Syrian "colleagues" of Monte Melkonian, the US citizen, who served his term in the French prison for the terrorist acts committed in Paris, who was involved in atrocities carried out by Armenians on the territory of the Nagorno-Karabakh and other regions of Azerbaijan and who was proclaimed a national hero of Armenia, attended his funerals together with Armenian officials, including President of the country.(47)
Another example. A well-known terrorist Grant Narkarian and Vazgen Sislian, one of organizers of the seizure of the Turkish embassy in Paris in 1981, were honored with the title of heroes of the Karabakh war.(48)
As a result of the cease-fire established in May 1984 and the measures taken by special services of Azerbaijan since mid-1995 the Armenian terrorist activity against the civilian population of Azerbaijan began to decline. But at the same time state organs of Armenia and the puppet regime in Nagorno-Karabakh made attempts to organize, to finance and realize this activity by means of using citizens of the third countries, the representatives of small nations of Azerbaijan, prisoners-of-war and hostages.
Thus, in training bases of the Armenian terrorists terrorist groups from separatist organizations of Lezghins, Avars, Kurds were set up, talks on the preparation of terrorist acts were held with the representatives of these groups and they were rendered every assistance. As a result of the examination of the persons put to investigation in connection with terrorist acts committed in September 2001 in the Zagatala region of Azerbaijan it became known that "defense minister" and other "top officials" of Nagorno-Karabakh took part in the preparation of the armed actions aimed at the unification of the northern parts of Azerbaijan with the Dagestan Republic of Russia and in the arms supply to the Lezghin and Avar separatists. Terrorists who committed these crimes visited repeatedly Yerevan and Nagorno-Karabakh, received a special training here; they were given weapons and money for the beginning of the actions on the establishment of a separatist Avar state.(49)
Magammad Ojagverdiyev, who was released from the Armenian captivity on November 3, 2001, said at the press conference held on November 23, 2001 that when he was in Armenia he was offered to commit terrorist acts against prominent public figures and politicians. In exchange he was offered a flat in any country and the money. When he refused he was tortured in the investigatory isolation ward of the ministry of national security of Armenia.
Terrorism is closely connected to transnational organized crime, illegal drug trafficking, money laundering, illegal arms trafficking and illegal transportation of nuclear, chemical, biological and other potentially lethal materials. This connection was referred to in the UN Security resolution 1373 of September 28, 2001.(50) This activity is especially seen in territories uncontrolled by states and widely used as transit corridors. Terrorist and separatist organizations carry out this kind of illegal activity for self-financing aims.
Armenia, as well as the puppet regime in Nagorno-Karabakh, continues to use the occupied territories of Azerbaijan as a transit corridor for the activities of transnational organized crime. They use these territories in the interests of the drug business, for illegal arms and human trade, money laundering and other illegal activities, the obtained profit being spent for the financing terrorism,(51) which is in its turn one of means of alienation of the Azerbaijani territory. In the "International Narcotics Control Strategy Report" of the US State Department of 2003 it is noted that the occupied Azerbaijani territories are used for drug trafficking. In 2001 in the Nagorno-Karabakh region 3,677 kg of hemp were seized.(52)
Moreover, the terrorists began to act in Armenia proper. The events of October 1999 in the Parliament of Armenia could be named as an example, when terrorists killed the speaker and a number of members of parliament, as well as the prime minister.
These facts let S.Weems come to a conclusion that "political assassinations are commonplace in Armenia today. The mayor of Yerevan, capital city, complained about corruption within the state government, and was murdered. Many individuals, who have attempted to object and speak out about state government abuse have been assassinated".(53)
As a form of extremism and violence, terrorism is a means in the hands of the groupings connected with separatism, destabilization, religious fundamentalism and political radicalism for the implementation of political goals. Terrorism, incompatible with the norms of international and domestic law, is especially brutal in carrying out its actions. Terrorism and those who commit terrorist acts undermine the very basics of morality and legality.
Terrorism was a means for the achievement by the Armenian nationalists of their political goals. It has become now an integral part of state politics of the Republic of Armenia. S.Weems noted that "since 1918 until today the two major exports of Armenia have been its own people, fleeing the "historic state" and terrorism. Since 1918 number one import of Armenia has been, and continues to be, foreign aid from other nations".(54)
All characteristic features and all type of terrorism pertain to Armenian terrorism, which uses practically all methods used by terrorist organizations. Armenian terrorism is closely connected to international terrorism and organized crime; it is their integral part. In 1973-2001 only in Western European countries Armenian terrorist organizations committed 235 terrorist acts, 70 murders, 41 assassination attempts. As a result of these terrorist acts 524 persons were wounded and 105 civilians were taken hostage.(55) Armenian terrorism is supported by the Republic of Armenia and is a part of its state policy.
Unfortunately, the Armenian myth based on the concepts of "Greater Armenia" and "Armenian genocide" fabricated by the Armenian ideologists, continues to serve, today as well, the instigation of hatred, evil and intolerance. Direct military aggression and terrorism with regard to the civilian population and civil installations are elements of common state policy of Armenia with regard to Azerbaijan. The Armenian terrorists committed the terrorist acts against Azerbaijan at the territories of the third states as well. The artificial prolongation by the Armenian side of the process of settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict is aimed at the aggravation of situation in the region. Armenia uses terror as a component of its state policy. All this creates serious threat to regional security. One thing is undoubted: the present-day Armenia, being the aggressor-state and the state, supporting and sponsoring terrorism and separatism, will act until the international community condemns and ceases to support its unlawful claims.
In conclusion we would like to remind of the statement by the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan that "...Terrorism threatens every society. As the world takes action against it, we have all been reminded of the need to address the conditions that permit the growth of such hatred and depravity. We must confront violence, bigotry and hatred even more resolutely…".(56)
Chronology of the terrorist acts in Azerbaijan (1989-1994)
September 16, 1989
Passenger bus, moving on the Tbilisi-Baku itinerary was blown up. As a result, 5 men died and 25 got wounded.
October 7, 1989
On the southern outskirt of the Khankendi town of the Republic of Azerbaijan the Armenian terrorists blew up a car bridge on the Khelfalichay River. A criminal A.A.Abramian was sentenced by the Supreme Court of the Republic of Azerbaijan to 15 years of imprisonment with expropriation.
February 18, 1990
On the 105th kilometer of the Yevlax-Lachin highway a line bus moving from Shusha to Baku was blown up. As a result of this terrorist act 13 persons were wounded.
July 11, 1990
A car caravan loaded with the goods of national economy escorted by detachment was attacked between the settlements of Oktavan and Jiraktar in the Agdere district of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. 3 persons were killed, 23 wounded. Criminal A.Ayrian was sentenced to extreme penalty with expropriation by the Supreme Court of the Republic of Azerbaijan on July 12, 1992.
August 10, 1990
As a result of explosion of a passenger bus moving on the itinerary of Tbilisi-Aghdam 20 persons were killed, 30 wounded. This criminal group also planned to organize explosion on the bus Aghdam-Tbilisi. On June 17, 1991 the group was arrested, its leader A.Avanesian was sentenced to extreme penalty, a member of the group M.Tatevosian - to 15 years of imprisonment.
December 15, 1990
Terrorist group, headed by S.Babayan and A.Ayrumanyan, killed 3 persons on a span between the Jamilli and Kosalar stations of the Asgeran district of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan.
September 15, 1990
The Armenian terrorists blew up the broadcasting center in Khankendi. No victims were recorded.
January 9, 1991
A reporter of the newspaper "Molodyoj Azerbaydjana" ("Azerbaijani Youth") S.Askerova, militaries - lieutenant colonel S.Larionov, major I.Ivanov, sergant I.Goek were killed on the 15th kilometer of the road from Lachin to Shusha. The Supreme Court of the Republic of Azerbaijan sentenced criminals A.Mkrtchian, G.Petrosian, A.Mangasarian, G.G.Arutyunian and G.M.Arutyunian to be shot and other members of the terrorist group to different periods of imprisonment.
January 19, 1991
In Khankendi V.Bagmanian, A.Antonian and S.Bagmanian made an attempt upon life of major-general V.Kovalyov, chief of the Office of Internal Affairs of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region.
Near the Drmbon settlement of the Agdere district of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan a group of terrorists, leaded by V.Galayan, committed an armed attack on autocade, moving to Kelbadjar. A driver of gasoline truck was killed.
Early in 1991
A.Bagmanian, S.Babayan, A.Abramyan and others killed head of the "Khodjali" airport.
April 8, 1991
A terrorist act was committed against deputy head of the office of internal forces on the Northern and Southern Caucasus colonel V.Blakhotin in Rostov-on-Don, Russia. The Court Board of the Rostov region sentenced criminals to different terms of imprisonment: A.Bagmanian and A.Antonian - to 15 years, S.Bagmanian - 12 years, K.Akopyan - 4 years, K.Yegityan - 2 years and 9 months.
April 18, 1991
As a result of an armed attack on motor-car the Armenian terrorists headed by G.Sarkisian in the Khojavend district of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan, near the Amaras Church 3 police officers were killed. The same group blew up the bridge between Askeran and Aghdam.
May 9, 1991
The Armenian militants made an attempt upon Vladimir Polyanichko, one of the members of the Organizational Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region. In August 1, 1993 he was murdered as a result of terrorist act in the Northern Ossetia.
May 30, 1991
The Moscow-Baku passenger train was blown up near the railway station of Khasavyurt, Dagestan, Russia. 11 people were killed and 22 wounded.
June 28, 1991
A group of the Armenian terrorists made an attack on the Garadaghli settlement of the Martuni district of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. 6 people out of the peaceful population were killed.
July 31, 1991
On the territory of Dagestan the Armenian militants blew up the Moscow-Baku train, as a result of which 16 people were killed and 20 wounded.
Summer of 1991
Khomich, major of the internal forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR was murdered on the highway Khankendi-Shusha.
November 20, 1991
"Mi-8" helicopter, with a group of eminent statesmen, political and military figures of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, as well as other officials and journalists on the board, was shot down by the Armenian terrorists over the Garakend settlement of the Khodjavend district of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. All passengers and crew died.
January 8, 1992
The Krasnovodsk (Turkmenbashi)-Baku passenger see ferry was blown up. 25 persons died and 88 were wounded.
January 28, 1992
A civilian helicopter, flying on the itinerary of Aghdam-Shusha, was shot down by the Armenian terrorists near Shusha. From 41 passengers on the board, mainly consisted of women and children, 3 were killed.
February 28, 1993
The Kislovodsk-Baku passenger train was blew up not far from the Gudermes station, Chechnya, Russia. 11 were killed, 18 wounded.
June 2, 1993
A passenger railroad car, standing on sidings, was blown up in the railway station in Baku. No victims were recorded. Criminal I.Khatkovskiy was sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment by the decision of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Azerbaijan in July 22 1994.
February 1, 1994
The Kislovodsk-Baku passenger train was blown up in the railway station in Baku. As a result, 3 people died and more than 20 were wounded.
February 24, 1994
A railroad car was blown up in the Khudat station. No victims were recorded.
March 18, 1994
The Armenian terrorists shot down the "Hercules" aircraft of the Iranian Air Forces, with diplomats and their families on the board. As a result of the terrorist act 34 people lost their lives.
March 19, 1994
An electric train was blown up in the subway station of "the 20th of January" in Baku. 14 people were killed and 42 wounded.
April 13, 1994
The Moscow-Baku passenger train was blown up in the railway station of "The lights of Dagestan" (Russia). As a result of the terrorist act 6 people were killed and 3 wounded.
July 3, 1994
An electric train was blown up between the "The 28th of May" and "Gandjlik" stations of the Baku subway. As a result, 14 people died and 54 were wounded.